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15 L’umanista rileva che con il termine Latinitas gli antichi hanno inteso comunemente due cose: la lingua parlata da tutti nell’Antichità senza alcuna conoscenza teorica delle regole, e quella dotta, appresa tramite lo studio e adoperata in seguito dagli uomini di cultura. In particolare, la seconda accezione di Latinitas rimanderebbe, a suo avviso, alla lingua informata ai precetti dei grammatici e pertanto epurata da barbarismi e solecismi. 17 Guarino quindi, seguendo punto per punto Isidoro, offre un cospetto analitico delle quattro fasi e tipologie della lingua latina (latini sermonis aetates speciesque).

Wright, p. 93. , 1, 32, 1. Sul passo si veda Bianca Finazzi, pp. 99-100. 13 Al barbarismo dedica ampio spazio il grammatico del IV. sec. d. C. Elio Donato nell’Ars maior. Si veda Holtz, pp. 653-655. 11 BIONDO FLAVIO E LE ORIGINI DEL VOLGARE 41 linguistici da sempre attribuiti nel mondo antico ai barbari. Per riassumere quindi possiamo affermare che mentre in Isidoro l’aggettivo mixtus è adoperato nell’accezione specifica di ‘comune’ e designa tutta la fase imperiale del latino, in Biondo esso ha il significato generico di ‘mescolato’ ed è riferito al volgare italiano in uso nel Quattrocento.

Biondo però nelle Decades (pp. 16-17) cita soltanto le epistole dello PseudoAgostino 4, 5, 10, 11, 12 13, 14, 15 a proposito dei Vandali (Cfr. Augustinus, Opera, II, pp. 1095-1098). 33 Non è possibile stabilire se Biondo fissi il Sacco di Roma al 412 e non al 410 a causa di un errore proprio o della sua fonte. 34 Blondus Flavius, Decades, pp. 10-11: ‘quod quidem pro victoris antea omnium gentium populi rem domesticam defensantis fortitudine proque barbarorum multitudinis avaritia atque insolentia supra fidem posterorum observatum fuisse omnes concordant scripto- BIONDO FLAVIO E LE ORIGINI DEL VOLGARE 45 saccheggio della città: il rapimento di Galla Placidia, figlia di Teodosio I e sorella di Onorio e Arcadio, e la riconsegna su ordine di Alarico dei vasa sacra pervenuti nelle mani di uno dei barbari.

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A new sense of the past : the scholarship of Biondo Flavio (1392-1463) by Gilbert Tournoy


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